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Updated October 2020!

Chest (Pecs) Growth Training Tips

by Dr. Mike Israetel, Co-founder and Chief Sport Scientist | Jan 30, 2017

The following are some helpful tips for your chest training. Please note that these are averages based on our personal training experience and, accrued through training thousands of clients over the course of many years. The recommendations here should be food for thought or places to start, not dogmatic scriptures to follow to the letter.

To stay rooted in the theoretical and practical bases on which the upcoming recommendations are made, before proceeding, please be sure you've read the introductory article for all of these specific muscle group training guides: Training Volume Landmarks for Muscle Growth 

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Likewise, before we dive into the training tips themselves, let's also review our key training volume landmarks and relate them to training the chest:   

MV = Maintenance Volume:

Perhaps around 4 sets per week are needed to maintain chest size for experienced trainers. The chest is a large muscle and experiences a lot of damage and stimulus from heavy training, thus doesn’t require much to maintain its size in many cases. We recommend 2 weekly sessions for maintenance, so that’s 2 sets per session, but you can probably get away with one weekly chest session for 4 sets and still maintain in an isocaloric state, and can do up to 3 sessions at 1-2 sets each as well.

MEV = Minimum Effective Volume:

Most intermediate-advanced lifters need at least 6 sets of direct chest work per week to make gains, and for some, it’s even more than that. If you’re training twice a week, that’s about 3 sets per session. It’s about 2 sets per session for 3x training, 1-2 sets for 4x training, and 1 set or so for 5x or 6x training.

MAV = Maximum Adaptive Volume:

maximum adaptive volume of a single session of any trained muscle group is still speculative, but research suggests it’s probably no lower than 4 working sets per session and no higher than 12 working sets per session in most intermediates. When you design your program and progressions, having lots of sessions with much fewer than 4 working sets per muscle group per session for multiple weeks on end might not be very efficient, and you might benefit from combining a few of these lower volume sessions to get the same volume but in fewer weekly sessions. Also, not exceeding 12 sets per session per muscle group for more than a few weeks is probably a good idea.

MRV = Maximum Recoverable Volume:

The MRV depends highly on the number of sessions per week. With 2 sessions, the average intermediate MRV for chest might be around 20 sets per week. With three sessions, it’s closer to 25 sets per week. With 4 sessions, it’s around 30 sets, and with 5 or 6 weekly sessions, it might be as high as 35 sets per week in many cases.  Individuals who aren’t very strong on pressing movements, lack flexibility in their shoulders to really stretch their chests, or can’t get a great mind-muscle connection with their pecs usually have higher MRVs (and that’s not a good thing)!


Exercises

There are three classes of exercise that constitute direct chest training. Horizontal pressing moves that train the whole chest, incline pressing moves that train mostly the clavicular (upper chest) fibers and isolation moves that train the chest without involving the triceps:

  1. Cable Flye
  2. Cable Bent Flye
  3. Cable Underhand Flye
  4. Cambered Bar Bench Press
  5. Deficit Pushup
  6. Flat Dumbbell Bench Press
  7. Flat Dumbbell Flye
  8. Flat Dumbbell Press/Flye
  9. Flat Hammer Machine Press
  10. Hammer Machine Press
  11. High Incline Dumbbell Press
  12. Incline Dumbbell Flye
  13. Incline Dumbbell Press
  14. Incline Dumbbell Press/Flye
  15. Incline Machine Chest Press
  16. Incline Barbell Press Medium Grip
  17. Incline Barbell Press Narrow Grip
  18. Incline Barbell Press Wide Grip
  19. Low Incline Dumbbell Press
  20. Machine Chest Press
  21. Machine Flye
  22. Medium Grip Bench Press
  23. Narrow Pushup
  24. Narrow Grip Bench Press
  25. Pec Deck Flye
  26. Pushup
  27. Smith Machine Bench Press
  28. Smith Machine Incline Press
  29. Smith Machine Narrow Grip Press
  30. Smith Machine Narrow Grip Incline Press
  31. Smith Machine Wide Grip Press
  32. Smith Machine Wide Grip Incline Press
  33. Wide Grip Bench Press

Variation

The chest is composed of two basic areas (clavicular head and sternal head) that demand their own special attention. In addition, isolation moves, while they don’t form the core of chest work, seem to be very helpful ingredients for maximum chest development. 

When you’re designing any week of chest training, make sure it has some horizontal, some incline and some isolation movements in it. Nearly every week of training should have at least a couple of sets of ALL of those movements. In fact, as the week progresses, it might be a good idea to rotate these movements. For example, if you train chest 6x a week, you might want to do a horizontal press on the first session, an incline press on the second, and a flye on the third, and then repeat that sequence for the second half of the week, but with different exercise choices or lighter loads for the categories.

Within a training session, we recommend including between 1 and 3 different chest exercises, but no more than that in most cases, as doing more than 3 chest movements in one session is likely just a needless burning of potential exercise variations you can save for later mesocycles. Within a single week (microcycle) of training, we recommend between 2 and 5 different chest exercises. For example, if you train chest 3x a week, you can do a heavy barbell bench on one day, a lighter barbell bench on the next day, and a flye version on the last day for 2 total exercises in the week. On the other hand, if you train chest 6x per week, you might want to choose (though don’t have to choose) as many as 5 different exercises, with only one of them repeated in a heavier/lighter arrangement. Because you want to keep exercises variations fresh for when you need to change exercises (through injury or staleness, for example), you should use as few exercises per week (and thus, per mesocycle, as we recommend keeping the same exercises in every week of each meso) as you can to get the job done. If you can just do a few more sets of barbell benches and get a great workout, there’s no reason to switch to dumbbell benches, for example. If you’re doing an exercise, there should be a reason for it.

Lastly, how do you know when it’s time to switch out a given exercise from your rotation to another exercise in your list of effective choices? The decision is based on answering just a few questions about the exercise you’re currently using:

  1. Are you still making gains in rep strength on the exercise?
  2. Is the exercise causing any aches or pains that are connective tissue related? And are these getting worse with each week or accumulating over multiple weeks?
  3. Is there a phasic need for the exercise to change? In other words, is the exercise appropriate for the rep range you’re trying to use it for?  Example: barbell benches for sets of 25 just tire out your forearms, but machine presses for 25 pump up your chest as intended.
  4. Are you getting a good mind-muscle connection on the exercise, or is it feeling stale and annoying to do?

If you are still hitting PRs on the exercise, it’s not causing any undue pains, you’re getting a good mind-muscle connection, and there’s no other need to change it, then don’t change it! If this means you keep an exercise around for up to a year or more, so be it! But if an exercise isn’t yielding any more PRs for a whole meso (especially on a muscle gain or maintenance phase), if it’s hurting you in the “bad” way, if it feels super stale, and/or if you have to dump it because it’s not appropriate to an upcoming rep range target, then you should replace it. Many times, the questions will fall on both sides, and then it’s up to you to make a wise choice considering all the 4 variables above.


Range of Motion

The chest is designed to be stretched under load, and it gets quite a bit of its growth stimulus from such motions. So if you’re training your chest and not taking presses as low as they can go (to the chest for barbells and to deeper than the chest by going outside of your shoulders for dumbbells), you’re missing out on chest growth. In fact, by lifting heavier weights than needed when avoiding full ROM, you tax the shoulder and elbow joints MORE and get hurt more often.


Loading

In general, like all muscles, the muscles of the chest benefit from weights in the 30%-85% 1RM range, which in many people roughly translates to a weight that results in between 5 and 30 reps on a first set taken to failure. We can split this range into heavy (5-10,) moderate (10-20), and light (20-30) categories, as there are tradeoffs to make between all of them.

The first point on loading is that the chest, like most muscles, seems to benefit from some training in all three of the rep ranges listed above. Because the moderate (10-20 rep) range often offers the best tradeoff between stimulus, fatigue, injury risk, and slow/fast fiber specificity, and mind-muscle connection, an argument can be made that a first-time program design could have most weekly working sets for the chest in this range, perhaps up to about 50% of them. The other 50% can perhaps be split evenly between the heavy (5-10) and light (20-30) rep ranges, as loading range diversity has been shown to be a potential benefit in its own right. 

The 10-20 range is productive for the chest, but many individuals report that they get their best results from something between the 5-10 and 10-20 ranges, perhaps sets of 8-12 reps and even a bit lower. This is especially true for compound presses like the barbell flat bench and incline. Flyes are a bit unsafe to train in the 5-10 range in many cases, so they are preferentially trained in the 10-20 range. Dumbbell movements and dips done for the chest (leaning forward more than with triceps dips) are a bit less stable than barbell or machine movements and are best done in the 10-20 rep ranges and not the 5-10 rep ranges for both safety and the highest levels of faster-fiber recruitment. Lastly, both barbell and dumbbell movements for the chest can be limited by forearm and hand endurance and comfort in the 20-30 rep range, so chest machines and variations of pushups are likely the better choices for those ranges. 

When constructing a weekly training plan, it’s probably a good idea to train the heavy ranges before the lighter ranges. Because both types of training cause fatigue, they all interfere with each other to some extent. However, the muscle and connective tissue damage from heavier training is likely more substantial and presents a higher risk of injury if some damage already exists from earlier training. Thus, if you do sets of 5-10 on Monday and (nearly always) sustain some form of micro-tearing, sets of 10-20 on Wednesday are lower in absolute force magnitude and are unlikely to cause the micro-tearing to expand into a notable injury. On the other hand, if you’re pre-damaged from lots of sets of 10-20 on Monday, going even heavier in such a state on Wednesday in the 5-10 range is a bit more likely to result in injury. Thus, a potential sequencing of heavy-moderate-light during the week might be advisable, with a day or two of extra rest after the light session and before the next heavy session to make sure most damage has been healed and another productive week can begin.

A sample arrangement of exercises, sets, and loads can look something like this:


Monday Wednesday Friday

Barbell Flat Press: 3 sets, 5-10 reps

Incline Dumbbell Press: 5 sets, 10-20 reps

Cable Flyes: 2 sets, 20-30 reps

Incline Barbell Press: 3 sets, 5-10 reps 

Dumbbell Flyes: 3 sets, 10-20 reps

Weighted Pushups: 2 sets, 20-30 reps


Based on your personal responses to each of the main rep ranges, you can adjust how much volume you perform in any of them. For example, if you notice that you get a better stimulus (pumps, soreness, mind-muscle connection, etc.) and lower fatigue (joint stress, systemic fatigue, joint soreness, etc.) in some of the ranges vs. others, you can do more sets in those ranges and a bit less in others, though you should in most cases still include at least some work in the least productive ranges. For example, you might find that neither 5-10 nor 20-30 rep ranges work very well for your chest training, so you might only do a few sets of both in most weeks and do the vast majority of your sets in the 10-20 range.


Rest Times

When determining how long to rest between any two sets in training, our goal is for enough rest to be taken such that the next set is at least close to maximally productive. How can we ensure this? By answering 4 basic questions about our recovery status:

  1. Has the target muscle locally recovered enough to do at least 5 reps on the next set?
  2. Has the nervous system recovered enough to remove it as a limiting factor to target muscle performance?
  3. Has the cardiorespiratory system recovered enough to remove it as a limiting factor to target muscle performance?
  4. Have synergist muscles in the exercise being performed recovered enough to remove them as a limiting factor to target muscle performance?

It might take only 1-2 minutes to recover very well (let’s say, 90%) on all of those factors, but because set to set recovery is asymptotic in nature, it might take another 3 minutes to get to 95% recovery and another 10 minutes more to get to 99% recovery. Since you only have so much time to spend in the gym, 10 “90% recovered sets” in 45 minutes of training is a much more anabolic stimulus than only 3 “99% recovered” sets in that same amount of time. Thus, our recommendation is to make sure you can clearly check all 4 boxes of recovery above, but to not wait much longer than what can be considered “very good” recovery in the incredibly inefficient quest for “near perfect recovery.” 

Here’s an example of what can be considered “very good” recovery between sets of chest training. Before you do another set of barbell bench presses, ask yourself:

  1. Is my chest still burning from the last set, or does it feel ok again?
  2. Do I feel like I can push hard with my chest again, and I am mentally ready for another hard set, or do I need more time to rest?
  3. Is my breathing more or less back to normal, or is it still very heavy?
  4. Are my front delts and triceps still very fatigued, or are they ready to support my chest in the upcoming set of barbell bench presses?

If you can get the green light on all of these, you’re probably ready to do another set, and waiting much longer will almost certainly not be of benefit. 

You’ll notice that depending on the exercise and on the lifter, very different rest times will be generated by this questionnaire. For example, pec deck flyes might not even have synergist muscles, so question 4 doesn’t even apply and rest times can be less than 45 seconds, whereas barbell bench presses might need 3 minutes between sets just to regain normal breathing. And if you’re on the larger and stronger side of things, and your cardio isn’t great, you’ll be resting much longer than someone smaller, not as strong, and in excellent cardio shape. While average rest times between sets of chest training will be between 1 and 3 minutes, the most important consideration is to take the rest time you need, and not copy someone else’s, rush the process, or sit around needlessly for minutes after all 4 factors are good to go for your next set to commence


Frequency

There are two main considerations for determining training frequency. The first is the duration of the increase in muscle growth seen after a bout of training between MEV and MRV. If such an increase in muscle growth lasts 7 days, then perhaps a once a week frequency is optimal. If such an increase lasts only a day, then perhaps 6 days a week for the same muscle group is much better. While direct research on muscle growth timecourses is very limited, it seems that typical training might cause a reliable 24-48 hour increase in muscle growth. This would mean that if muscle growth elevation was the only variable of concern with regards to frequency, we should train every muscle 3-6 times per week. 

However, the second main consideration on determining training frequency is recovery. A single bout of training between MEV and MRV causes muscle growth to occur, but it also presents some degree of fatigue. If we are to progress in training and allow adaptations to fully take hold over days and weeks, we must allow enough time to elapse between overloading sessions for at least most fatigue to dissipate. On average, the exact amount of fatigue dissipation must be at least enough to allow performance to return to baseline or higher, such than an overload can be presented. In other words, if you can normally barbell incline press 135 for 15 reps, asking yourself “when should my next chest workout be after this last one” can be answered by “when will you be recovered enough to be able to incline press at least 135 for 15 reps?” The timecourse of fatigue is usually a bit longer than that of muscle growth, unfortunately, so that for most people, recovery, not muscle growth cessation, will be the limiting factor on frequency. In most per-session MEV-MRV training volumes, fatigue will take between 1-2 days to come back down enough to restore or improve on past performance, and that highly depends on the muscle in question and even the exercises used. 

How do you determine what training frequency is appropriate for you? You can start by training your chest at per-session MEV volumes. After each session, you note when soreness has abated and when you feel recovered enough psychologically to attempt another overloading workout. When you’re ready, and no later, go back to the gym and train chest again, with volumes just a bit higher than MEV (using the RP Set Progression Algorithm). If you’re recovering on time, keep coming back and training your chest as often as you have been. If you notice that you need more time to recover, add a day to your next post-chest-training window. If you’re recovering faster than you thought you could, train a bit more often. After a mesocycle of such adjustments, you will have a rough but very good guess as to what your average chest training frequency can be for most of your programs going forward. In fact, your frequency will not only be tailored exactly to your responses, but you’ll be pretty sure it’s close to optimal because it was literally derived from how fast you can recover; which is the very primary variable that determines frequency. 

Just so that you have some expectation of where to start, most individuals can recover from chest training at a timecourse that allows for 2-4 sessions of chest per week at MEV-MRV volumes. However, only through direct experimentation on yourself can you tell where in this range is best for you and if maybe you’re even outside of this range. Just remember that so long as you’re recovered to train again (can perform at or above normal levels), training is a better idea than waiting to train, because higher frequency programs, at least in the short term, have shown to generate more muscle growth than needlessly lower ones. 

To improve your training frequency, you can alternate exercise selections between successive chest workouts. For example, if you do barbell incline presses on one day, you might do dumbbell incline presses or flat machine presses the next day, and so on. This rotation of slightly different exercises and movement patterns can take repeated stress off of very small and specific parts of your muscles and connective tissues, which might reduce chronic injury risk exposure. In fact, an easy rotation is to switch between incline movements that target your clavicular pecs and horizontal movements that target your sternal pecs.



Periodization

There are a few relevant timescales in periodization:

  • The repetition (1-9 seconds)
  • The set (5-30 repetitions)
  • The exercise (1-5 sets) 
  • The session (2-6 exercises)
  • The day (0-2 sessions)
  • The microcycle (usually 1 week of training)
  • The mesocycle (3-12 weeks)
  • The block (1-4 mesocycle s)
  • The macrocycle (1-4 blocks)

We’ve already covered the most important details on most of these timescales, so in this section, we’ll focus on a brief understanding of how to manipulate training over a typical mesocycle and training block.

A mesocycle is composed of two phases: the accumulation phase and the deload phase. The accumulation phase lasts as long as it takes to hit systemic MRV, which, because fatigue accumulates in MEV+ training, has to happen at some point. For beginners with very high recovery abilities, it can take up to 12 weeks of increasingly more demanding training for systemic MRV to be reached and a deload to be required. For very advanced lifters that have very strong, large, and volume-resistant muscles, it can take only 3-4 weeks of accumulation training to reach systemic MRV and need to deload. The deload phase is designed to bring down the fatigue from the accumulation phase, and it usually only lasts a week or so (one microcycle).

When you begin a mesocycle of training, you should probably begin at or close to your MEV for all the muscle groups you’d like to improve during that mesocycle, for reasons described extensively in our book on the subject of training volume. Week to week, you can manipulate working sets by using the Set Progression algorithm from the Training Volume Landmarks for Muscle Growth (link) article. You should seek to keep reps stable from week to week while letting your RIR decline from a 3 or 4 RIR start until it gets down to 0 (for exercises that don’t threaten the bar falling on you) or 1 (for those that do) in the last week of training. The way you keep the reps stable as RIR falls is by adding weight to the exercises you’re using. How much weight to add is a matter of an educated guess on your part. You want to add enough weight to get your target RIR with the same reps as last week. For example, if you did 100lbs last week for 10 reps on your first set of an exercise at 2 RIR, how much should you do next week to get 10 reps again but at 1 RIR? Well, you might think that adding 2.5lbs would be too easy, and you could honestly get 11 reps with that next week at 1 RIR, but adding 10lbs might require you to push to 0 RIR to get 10 reps, so you would just add 5lbs and that will probably take you where you need to be. If you’re making very rapid gains on an exercise, you might have a few weeks here and there where even though you increased weight by a bit, your RIR didn’t decline. You might have hit 8 reps at 100lbs at 3 RIR last week, and then hit 8 reps again at 3 RIR with 105lbs this week! This is a good thing, and lots of these weeks are how beginners can sometimes crank out up to 12 weeks of accumulation. Since getting to failure too soon is MUCH WORSE than getting there a bit slower, we recommend being conservative on nearly all weekly weight additions.

If you can’t realistically add weight, you can add reps. This might happen when, for example, you are using the 25lb dumbbells one week and then having to do the 30lbers next week, wildly slashing your reps. Just remember to stay within your general rep range and not leave it in any given meso. If you start at sets of about 5 reps, don’t add any more reps than will give you sets of 10, because that will take you out of the 5-10 range and no longer fulfill the needs of your training program in the way it was intended. If you start to exit a range by adding reps, add weight to take yourself back into that range, even if the increments are big and take you all the way down to the bottom of the range. Yes, this might mean that last week you were doing 20 reps with the 20lb dumbbells on your first set, and this week you’re back to only 10 reps with the 25lbers at the same or one less RIR, but that’s proper training!

Once you cannot tie previous reps in at least two consecutive sessions for a given muscle group, you have likely hit its local MRV, and need to reduce its training volume. Our recommendation is to take the next planned session with half of the planned working sets, half of the planned reps, and half of the load for recovery. In the session after, resume your load progression from before, but start at a number of sets halfway between where you started the meso and your MRV set number, and an RIR of around 2. Thus, for example, if you hit 100lbs for 10 reps on a first set last session (6 total sets in the session for that muscle group), whereas the week before, you hit 95lbs for 12 reps, your next workout can be 50lbs for 3 sets of about 5 reps. Then, next week, you resume with 105lbs, but shoot for 2 RIR and do 4 sets total, because you started the meso at 2 sets, and 4 is halfway between 2 and 6 sets. Continue to train normally after that until and unless you hit MRV again.

Systemic MRV is when you’re training so hard that your sleep quality declines, your appetite falls, and you might get sick more often. It’s also when nearly all of your muscles start to hit local MRVs at about the same time. Once that happens (and be honest with yourself when it does), stop the accumulation phase and begin the deload phase.

The deload can be done many ways, but our recommendation is to take sets to MEV for the whole week. The load should be week 1’s load for the first half of the week and ½ of week 1’s load for the second half. The reps should be roughly half of all week 1’s reps for all sets during the deload week. This makes the deload VERY EASY, which is the whole point, since hard training doesn’t bring down fatigue! You should feel refreshed and be craving hard training toward the end of your deload week if you’re setting it up correctly. 

Those are the basics of periodization over the mesocycle . The training block is a sequence of mesocycle s strung together for one unifying purpose. For example, a muscle gain block may be 3 mesocycles of 6 weeks each, one after another, with weight gain the goal for all 18 of those total weeks, or a fat loss block might be 2 mesocycles of 5 weeks long during which weight loss is the goal for all 10 of those weeks.

Though we can potentially alter all training variables over a training block, frequency, exercise selection, and loading are definitely noteworthy.

Frequency Periodization

When you start a training block, your MEVs are very low and so are your weekly MRVs. Thus, you can fit your total training volume relatively easily into lower frequencies, such as 2x per week per muscle group, for example. As training progresses and you start your next meso, not only do your per-session MEVs go up, but your weekly MRVs go up as well, making fitting all your training into just a few sessions more difficult. As well, you’re now quite used to the exercises, and recovery between sessions occurs much faster, allowing a higher frequency microcycle to be much more realistic. At this point, you can increase your frequency a bit, perhaps to an average of something like 3x per muscle group, for example. In the last one or two mesos, your per-session MEVs are very high and your per-week MRVs even higher. To really get the best gains, another bump in frequency is recommended, and you might go to 4x or so training per muscle group, and perhaps even higher. 

Unfortunately, super high frequencies might not be the most sustainable for a couple of reasons. First, muscles heal faster than connective tissues, and if you train with very high frequencies, sometimes your connective tissue recovery can lag behind your muscle recovery, which may set you up for injuries if unabated. Secondly, the sheer weekly volume that higher frequencies let you do productively might cause so much fatigue escalation as to not be sustainable for longer than a mesocycle or two. Thus, after training for a meso or two at your highest frequency, you might end the training block and seek to reduce the very high fatigue levels you have accumulated, in part by starting whatever phase you start next at lower frequencies.

Exercise Selection Periodization

For normal exercise selection decisions, you can just follow the 4-part exercise deletion and replacement guidelines in the variation section above. But as you add sessions from meso to meso with a climbing frequency, you’ll need to consider adding exercises. Yes, you can repeat exercises a few times in the week with different loads, but we recommend doing this sparingly, and more often adding in new exercises when you add new sessions as frequency climbs. Thus, you might start with an exercise on Monday and a different one on Thursday in a 2x meso, but when you move to 3x, you might have to add a new exercise on Friday, keeping the Monday exercise the same and moving the Thursday exercise to Wednesday. Because fatigue and wear and tear increase with each meso in a block, we recommend adding less systemically disruptive exercises more often than adding more disruptive ones. For example, you might consider adding some machine presses on that Friday 3x session but adding barbell incline presses to an already fatiguing week of chest training might be overkill. Yes, you can add very tough movements as you go, but we recommend against it in most cases. Thus, you start with pretty much only or mostly basic, high-stress moves such as barbell bench presses and barbell incline presses earlier in the block, and later on add machine presses, dumbbell presses, and other such less fatiguing exercises as you add in sessions to expand frequency over the training block. 

Loading Periodization

Whatever exercises you’ve carried over from one meso to the next should be done in the same rep ranges as they were done in the last mesos. For example, if you did barbell incline presses in the 5-10 rep range on a first set in the last meso, in the next meso, you should continue your loading progression to stay in that same rep range, which often means just adding small increments of weight from where you last left off in the last meso, or lightening up the weight just enough to get similar reps at 3-4 RIR again in the first week. But for new exercises added in each meso as frequency goes up, we recommend adding in the moderate (10-20) and light (20-30) rep ranges instead of the heavy (5-10) range. This recommendation occurs for two reasons. First, as you take on more wear and tear and fatigue, adding more 5-10 rep movements might cause a large increase in injury risk, especially now that you’re asking your body to perform with such heavy loads with even less recovery time between sessions. Secondly, very high rep (20-30) training seems to cause robust gains over a meso or two, but in part because your body adapts to buffering metabolites so quickly, might not work nearly as well for much longer. Thus, you may want to start with heavier training in the first meso of a block, keep it for all remaining mesos, and add in lighter training with new sessions as you go, which also pairs well with the selection of less fatiguing exercises. Here’s an example of how that might look for the chest:

 

  Meso 1 Meso 2 Meso 3

Mon

Barbell Incline Presses (5-10)

Barbell Incline Presses (5-10)

Barbell Incline Presses (5-10)

Wed

x

Barbell Incline Presses (10-20)

Barbell Incline Presses (10-20)

Thurs

Barbell Flat Presses (10-20)

x

x

Fri

x

Machine Flyes (10-20)

Machine Flyes (10-20)

Sat

x

x

Machine Incline Presses (20-30)


Once you’ve done a whole training block, you can do a mesocycle of low frequency (2x) training at MV with mostly 5-10 rep ranges and compound movements to resensitize your muscles to volume and growth again. This meso can take about a month and can be good to pair with maintenance eating to bring down any diet fatigue you might have from hard dieting in the last block. If you don’t have any real diet fatigue, you can instead take around 2 weeks of active rest (sometimes just one week if you count the deload after your last meso), where you train with 1x frequency for every muscle, with only about 2 working sets per muscle per session, and with weights that are around 50% of your 5-10 range, but doing them for only 5-10 reps per set. This ultra-easy training can make you ready for another whole block of training in the gym and can even be replaced with no training at all if you’re feeling really beat up or tired. Once you’ve taken this easy time, you’re probably ready to give another training block a go!


Training Modalities

Straight Sets

Straight sets are sets performed to 0-4 RIR, with enough rest time to recover all 4 limiting factors (see the rest time section above for details).

Straight sets are excellent for the chest. The allow a ton of control and are easy for performance tracking. They should form the basis of most chest training. 

Down Sets

Down sets are straight sets, but with less weight (usually 10-20% less) than the previous straight sets. By lowering the weight, you can keep reps over 5 per set, and/or keep the mind-muscle connection high and keep technique excellent to continue to have a high stimulus to fatigue ratio in every set of that exercise.  

Down sets are definitely an option for chest, but many people report that heavier training actually lets them have a higher mind-muscle connection than lighter training for the chest. If you do have trouble with chest mind-muscle or your reps get to 5 or lower on a given exercise, by all means feel free to employ down sets.

    Controlled Eccentrics and Pauses

    Concentric, eccentric, and isometric phases of each exercise can be between half a second and 3 seconds long and still confer near-optimal effects on hypertrophy. In some cases, slowing down eccentrics and extending pauses can enhance technique, mind-muscle connection, and safety of the exercise.

    Pausing at the bottom of presses and flyes is very likely quite preventative of major injury to the chest, as is controlling both the eccentric and the concentric. “Exploding off the chest” is a great tool for athletic performance, but its injury risks and mind-muscle downsides probably prohibit it from being a useful method of movement for the bodybuilder. You don’t have to pause each rep or squeeze at the top of all machine flyes, but as you get bigger and stronger, you might want to do especially the former, especially on your heavier sets, more of the time than not.

      Giant Sets 

      Giant sets give you a certain weight to lift, an RIR range to hit (usually 0-4 RIR), and a goal of total reps over as many sets as it takes. An example is aiming to do 100lbs for however many sets it takes to get 60 total reps, while taking normal rest between each set. Such an approach can take the focus off of having to match or exceed the per-set reps you did last week, and can thus let you super-focus on technique and the mind-muscle connection, thus potentially improving both and getting more out of the training with exercises that can demand lots of technique and mind-muscle connection to be effective. If you’d like to be super precise in counting sets for your volume landmarks, we recommend counting giant sets at 2/3 of the contribution of straight sets, such that if you did 6 total sets to get to your giant set rep target, you can count that as 4 sets of “straight set equivalency” in terms of stimulus and fatigue. This discount is because with a higher focus on technique and mind-muscle connection and a lower focus on getting as many reps per set as possible, giant sets likely don’t cause as much fatigue as straight sets.

      The chest often gives better mind-muscle feedback the more fatigued it gets and the lower the reps are, so giant sets aren’t as useful for the chest as they are for many other muscles. That being said, sometimes flyes and dumbbell presses can be tough to do technically perfectly when you’re too focused on just getting the reps, so giant sets can come in very hand in such cases.

      Myoreps

      Myoreps are just like straight sets in that they must check all 4 recovery boxes before doing another set. However, they are different in two ways. First, while the first set is usually between 10-20 reps (0-2 RIR), the next multiple sets only rest long enough to get between 5 and 10 reps each. This is to maximize the ratio of effective (near-failure) reps to total reps over the multiple sets. Secondly, for all of those successive sets to register the highest number of effective reps per set, the local recovery factor (the muscle itself) must be by far the most limiting, so that successive sets are not limited by the nervous system, the lungs, and other muscles, allowing the final reps of each set to recruit and tense the fastest and most growth-prone motor units. For this to be possible, only isolation exercises without limiting synergists are appropriate for myoreps. If you’d like to be super precise in counting sets for your volume landmarks, we recommend counting myorep sets each as the equivalent of a straight set. While they do have fewer reps, they are often taken closer to failure and thus turn out to be about as fatiguing. 

      Myoreps can work great for chest flyes of various sorts, as well as machine presses, especially when the chest is already pre-exhausted relative to the synergists (triceps, front delts, etc.). However, because free weight presses are usually quite systemically fatiguing, myoreps are not usually appropriate for them.

        Drop Sets

        Drop sets are exactly like myoreps, but with even shorter rest times because weight is reduced by 10-20% on average between each set. The effects are very similar. The advantage of drop sets is their time saving, and their slight disadvantage over myoreps is that dropping the weight a lot can reduce mind-muscle connection via reducing tension perception. If you’d like to be super precise in counting sets for your volume landmarks, we recommend counting drop sets each as the equivalent of a straight set. While they do have fewer reps and lighter loads, they are often taken closer to failure and in such rapid and painful succession that they turn out to be about as fatiguing.

        Drop sets can be a nice change of pace, mostly for chest flyes. However, chests tend to respond a bit better to heavier work, and dropping too much weight can lead to a “going through the motions” effect you might not like. If you want to get away from straight sets for chest, we recommend exploring myoreps before you explore drop sets in most cases

        Pre-Exhaust Supersets

        These supersets begin with an isolation exercise for a given muscle group, and with no rest after taking it to 0-2 RIR, end with a compound exercise to which the target muscle is a big contributor. The local pre-exhaust of the isolation exercise allows the target muscle to be by far the limiting factor for the compound exercise that follows, and lets it be exposed to a few more effective reps than it otherwise would be if that compound was done fresh. After each 2-exercise superset, 4-factor rest is again taken until the next 2-exercise superset begins. If you’d like to be super precise in counting sets for your volume landmarks, we recommend counting pre-exhaust supersets as 1.5x as the equivalent of a straight set. This is because the compound exercise done in the second part of the set is only limited (highly) by the target pre-exhausted muscle, and this isn’t nearly as fatiguing, especially systemically, as it would be if it were done fresh.

        Because there are so many brutally effective chest isolations and compounds, most people will struggle much more with chest recovery than with getting enough chest stimulus. However, some people have harder times with mind-muscle connections on their chest, and compounds see their front delts and triceps as much more limiting factors. In such cases, super setting a flye variant with a pressing variant (especially wider grip) can be an excellent approach.

          Occlusion Sets

          Occlusion training is myorep training with the limb occluded just above the muscle. This occlusion causes the local muscle and nerve to be far and away the limiting factors on recovery between sets, and thus allows you to focus in on a target muscle group that might have otherwise been difficult to reach with non-occluded movements. The big benefit is time saving, because rest between occluded sets is only long enough to get another 5 reps, and you can also use weights at the very low end of the growth range and even a bit lower (20-30% 1RM). The downside is that the local vasculature adapts very quickly to occlusion, so it might not be very effective for any more than a mesocycle or two in a row. Also, some muscles are much harder than others to occlude, or even impossible to occlude. If you’d like to be super precise in counting sets for your volume landmarks, we recommend counting occlusion sets each as the equivalent of 2/3 of a straight set, as they cause much less systemic fatigue due to the lower reps and weights used.

          Because it’s pretty much impossible to occlude the chest (and live through it), this is not an option with chest training.


          Sample Programming [Program Nickname: “Pilgrim”]